Author Archives: Elsa

Charging or Issues Systems in Special Libraries in Sierra Leone

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special libraries are collections that exist to serve the needs of its customers. Libraries are varied as your needs. However, the libraries have common elements in the service offering, focused collections and its staff that are able to adapt to the changing needs of its customers base. The phrase “Special libraries” is a misnomer, because all libraries are special and have similarities in their functions. This statement does not dispute the fact that some libraries have special concerns – whether its clientele, its collections or its purpose. A standard definition of a special library would be there to serve the limited needs of a specific entity – a business, industry, agency, non-professional organizations or non-profit group. They are also subject oriented units of a public library or academic (Malaga and Harrison, 1990).

the collection of special libraries is smaller and tend to focus more on comparison with public and academic libraries. Special libraries have the tools and the people required to make information available to the customer because it is not enough to gather and obtain information from the House. It should be accessible to users. A special ultimately library is particularized services information that relates, interprets and uses materials by hand for constant use and benefit from the organization serves (Chirgwin and Oldfield, 1982).

the special library primary requirement is that it must provide current information that allows researchers and other entrepreneurs to carry out its functions effectively. Therefore, it provides not only a collection of materials for which referred to the demand, but also a network of services that make information available to a variety of external sources.

previously, the provision of books and other materials for research purposes was considered of paramount importance. With the dramatic increase in the number of students after the war in Sierra Leone, they became more generally accepted that a University Library should aim to meet the needs of its major categories of readers; i.e., the research worker and academic staff.

definition of load or system problems

according to Berkett and Ritiche (1977), the recording of the loan of materials is called load or emission. The load method chosen by a particular library depends on much of the clientele of the library, the size of the population and the need to restrict the number of elements that can have a library member borrowed, and whether the library has peak for the loan and return materials. The choice of methods will be also affected by the amount and type of information requires the staff of the Library topic to present.

the purpose of a circulation system is access to the users of the library as much as possible to the population. Unfortunately, a book lent to a reader is not available for others and certain restrictions should be made. For example, an encyclopedia is a compendium of knowledge on a vast number of topics and is designed for easy reference rather than for reading. Allowing a book on loan would be inconvenient that a large number of users of the library without the borrower benefit.

each library use a system for the registration of books and other items to its readers. There have been many modern developments to record tracks in the last thirty years, mainly due to the high cost of staff, greater use and in search of better overall efficiency. There is a system for multiple use with the requirements of all kinds of library, although the last computer charging system can cope with many aspects quickly.

a good system must allow the library staff discover that the reader has borrowed that you book. You must show when books are due back and expired. Some systems can control the number of books published, and particularly the number that each reader has borrowed. The best systems will allow that the book is renewed without returning the book in person and should allow readers of books that are not immediately available.

load or system problems in libraries

the circulation department is the area where most of the customers are accustomed because it is here that library materials are loaned out and after use, and sometimes referred to as the Department main house or take. They are kept records of customers here after completing a form is necessary to provide personal information, i.e. name, address, sex, condition and guarantor. Some departments have different cards for different categories of users to complete. Circulation Department however perform the following functions:
• registration of new users and keep records of library users;

• maintenance of records of borrowed materials and returns them;

• note when rendered by back materials in the library;

• maintenance of statistics of the Department;

• send overdue notices to customers who can not return your books (Nwogu, 1991) due date.

types of loading or editing systems used in libraries

as he has been said, one of the main services offered by libraries is the loan of books and other materials. Obviously, libraries must maintain some type of record of lending operations and many methods have been designed to regulate this task. These methods are known as methods of load or transmitter. The load method chosen by a particular library depends on much of the clientele of the library, the size of the stock and the need to restrict the number of elements that can have a library member borrowed and whether the library has peak for the loan and return material. These are some examples of loading methods used in different types of libraries.

the system of Browne: for many, many years, the most commonly used method of load is the system of Browne. With this system, you fill in a membership application form and Reader gives you a number of entries with your name and address. Reader presents books to loan at the counter of the issue, along with the ticket of a reader for each book. The date is stamped seal in each book with the date of return; book card is removed from each book and inserted into the reader (a book per ticket card) inputs. The charge is therefore a book card inserted in a Bill. When the book is returned, the wizard will search inside to know date, or Pocket sticker, accession number/author/class number as well as the expiration date. Case is then removed from the Edition, book card replaced in pocket book and ticket returned to the reader.

the system of Islington: in this system, each reader is given a ticket of plastic that highlights your name and address. The stationery within the books of the library is the same as the system of Browne. However, the difference lies in the fact that the reader must print a sheet of address (with a note of relief) for each book that you want to borrow. Therefore the ‘load’ a book card is more a slip of paper inside a ticket blank address.

book of ticket or stub loading: in this method, each book has a pocket of permanently fixed book inside the cover in which the book details are given. Inside this pocket book is a Pocket, inside which is a book with details of the book card. The reader only need to insert one slide for your ticket in plain pocket and present the book for printing the date. The wizard removes the ‘burden’ and subsequently surrenders. Issue trays are usually kept in a separate ‘download room’ and not at the issue desk. There is a reception where the books are returned, the actual download is performed later in the ‘ room of shock when you remove the burden of the issue, the destroyed reader ticket and card pocket and book level returned to the book. An additional ‘stub’ is issued to the reader when the former is used up.

symbolic: book date tag is sealed in the usual way, and the reader must deliver a tab for each book published. Returning books, the reader receives only the appropriate number of cards to change. At the end of each year the reader must be able to produce the full range of tokens or pay a cost that have been lost. A visible index (is a list of reserved books must be checked whenever books are returned) is used for reservations.

load of punched card: when a book is checked out, the Assistant takes two cards punched, previously dated with the date due for return (perforated and stamped date), places the two punch in an automatic key cards perforated machine and punches in both letters the reader number and number to book the class number. A card is retained as a record of the lending library; the other card is inserted in the pocket of the book with her date of return clearly visible. Punch cards are returned books, classified in order of number of accession by machine and then by machine with cards duplicated as a record of the lending library. Unmatched cards represents books still out on loan and these can be refilled mechanically, this time in date to reveal backward order.

computer system of emission: computing is now available in the libraries is very advanced. The terminal in question is equipped with a boom in data that can be attached to a self – inking date. There is a card holder that fits the reader ticket. Load is achieved running horizontal data pencil through books barcode labels and barcode in the lectoricket t to be provided. Date in the book labels are stamped with the date of return and the ticket is returned to the player. Download terminal is also equipped with another pencil of data and is used to read books bar code labels when they returned. The reader ticket is not necessary at this stage as the reader name will automatically be deleted from your computer when all of the books are the records have been returned (Malaga and Harrison 1990).

load or editing system in the Faculty of medicine and library of Sciences allied health

the College of medicine and Allied Sciences of the health (COMAHS) was founded on April 12, 1988 by the Government of Sierra Leone, in cooperation with the Nigerian Government and the World Health (who) Organization. With the promulgation and entry into force of law of the University in 2005, which led to the creation of two universities in Sierra Leone, Faculty of medicine and Allied Sciences of health as an arm constituent of the University of Sierra Leone, in collaboration with the National School of nursing, which is a faculty and school of pharmacy technician also part of the Faculty of pharmaceutical sciences.

the library of the Faculty of medicine and allied health sciences began a few months after the University was established in 1988. The library was first located in the street, in Brookfields and later transferred to New England in Freetown, from where he was finally transferred to the Connaught Hospital, when the Ministry of Health gave up the building they occupy it as a library.

the library of the Faculty of medicine and Allied Health Sciences was initiated by a medical librarian by the name of Nancy M’Jamtu-Sie in 1988. The library carries out the main action in matters of medicine and Sciences of health at the University of Sierra Leone. The library relies exclusively on donations and operates from three sites: the main medical library at the Connaught Hospital, which houses the Administrative Office of the library, short loan, reference, collection of the World Health Organization audio cassettes; the facilities of CD-ROM and Internet, the multidisciplinary library in the national nursing school, houses the general collection and loan, as well as short and books of reference and library of medical science on the Campus of the town of Kossoh.

the Mission of the College of medicine and Allied Health Sciences is: “educate physicians oriented community, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory scientists and health with professional skills and managerial sounds suitably qualified personnel to comply with international and able to investigate and pursue training in specialized areas of health care delivery.”

the practices of the Faculty of medicine and Allied Health Sciences system of emission of aforementioned Browne, who is practiced in most libraries, especially special libraries found in the University of Sierra Leone. With the Browne’s load or emission system in the library of the College of medicine and allied health sciences, each book in the library has a book that is stored in a pocket inside each book. The card identifies each book by recording, usually the number of adhesion, number of classification, author and short title. Each reader has an issued ticket indicating the name and address. Ticket of this reader is the paper card, which was taken from the bag in the book, and this forms the emission registration. Each book is marked with the date of return and the theme is presented in trays under the due date for the return to date probably by the number of.

when readers return the book, date due to stamped on the date label located between the decks of the question correct date and number printed on the date of the label must find the correct position within that date. The paper card and returns it to the book, which is now ready for the shelf and the reader retrieves your tickets. Overdue books are evident since trays are in date order and reservation is made looking for care appropriate in an obvious way. Brown is operated simply and easily understandable by the library staff and readers alike.

customers or users of the Faculty of medicine and Health Sciences Library allies

a clientele in the library is a body of customers or users that makes use of a library to obtain the necessary information. The clientele of a library is very well informed group. Accordingly, the emphasis of the library is in maintaining the considerable depth of subject material or provision of information to be printed. All members of the University of Sierra Leone that you can use the Allied Sciences of health and Faculty of medicine library must register at the library and get a membership card. External readers can use the library for your inquiry, but it would not be lending facilities.

in the library of the College of medicine and allied health sciences, most of the books available to users for the loan period and varies the number of books borrowed. The action of the book covers basic medical sciences, biology, Physiology, biochemistry and all disciplines of medicine. Books are loaned to the students and staff for certain period of time.

challenges of load or editing system in the Faculty of medicine and Health Sciences Library Allied

special libraries in Sierra Leone, especially the University of medicine and Health Sciences Library allies are not without problems.

the space challenge: three sites where works of the Faculty of medicine and Allied Health Sciences Library have been observed to be very small in relation to the building. The location of these sites above all with the National School of nursing which houses the general collection as short loan and reference books; and the library of medical science on the campus of Kossoh Town, are not seen as favorable in terms of its location. They do not offer a convenient access for staff and customers. Shelves and storage not has been conveniently located.

financial situation: the financial situation of the library of the Faculty of medicine and Allied Health Sciences has been very unsatisfactory especially when management cannot meet its obligation to take care of the itinerary of the library. This has led to the library do not have up-to-date Collections. This has been in the area of wages, which has been very poor, operational costs, subscriptions, acquisition, training and professional development.

Insuficientes materials: materials in medicine and allied health sciences faculty are insufficient to meet the needs of its users. The materials are acquired mainly through donations as the library does not have sufficient funds to buy materials to meet the needs of its users.

inadequate equipment and limited Internet service: there is no appropriate equipment and sufficient to meet the numerous clienteles strong internet connectivity. In the library of the College of medicine and allied health sciences, the insufficient number of computers available does not allow the library operate equipment charge or issuance of system more advanced and easier to operate than Browne system currently used by the load library. Also provided Internet service is not enough to handle the high number of students, staff and other users.

lack of adequate training and qualified personnel: the Faculty of medicine and Allied Health Sciences Library is the abbreviation suitable trained and qualified librarians that have been rendered ineffective in the library in the area spread correctly to users. The library consists only of two skilled librarians and additional staff consists of a technician, staff, cleaners and couriers.

conclusively, the library of the Faculty of medicine and allied health sciencesd as a library in the University of Sierra Leone has been able to meet the information needs of many users with the emission system of Browne who operates on. However, the collection is not updated and the service is not great to satisfy the clientele that attends. The library of the University lacks of sufficient funds to buy materials updated. The library services have not been too successful and this is because few trained staff and poor facilities. Despite these challenges in the library of the Faculty of medicine and allied health sciences, the Browne’s charge or issuance system has shown to be therapy that has saved the question of the provision of services to its clients and the due preservation of materials.


The Importance of Cataloging

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used catalogues in libraries. These catalogs are catalogs of the library. Library catalogs are full of information about the resources that are within the library. The information contained in the catalogues is known as the bibliographic record. Now if you want to know the true essence of the catalogue, you have to understand how they are created or submitted. This is where the process of cataloging in the light.

what is classified? Do you need to make a distinction between cataloging and catalog printing? Some people conceive these two terms as one. This is not correct. For cataloging is the process by which librarians seen when doing a bibliographic record during the printing of the catalogue refers to the process of printing a catalog. When you say the cataloging is record some relevant details about a work published above all books and newspapers. The information includes the title of the article, the name of the author, published date, titles, etc.

Please note that there are certain rules that you must follow to put some information in the material library. Cataloging is a way to put in order all the materials found within a library. It is also a systematic way of finding the correct reference you are looking for.

in general terms, there are two types of classification system used in cataloguing. It is the Dewey Decimal Classification, DDC or library of Congress’s LCC classification system. Between the two, is the Dewey Decimal classification that is popularly used in public libraries system. The Dewey Decimal classification is basically a numeric system that manages all bodies of knowledge into 10 general categories. On the other hand, the library of Congress Classification makes use of the alphabetic system.

today with advanced equipment in hand, cataloguing process has become more easy. There are different applications designed in making bibliographic records. These software applications are very useful in the creation of online catalogs. In this regard, MARC has emerged. MARC stands for the unregistering of machine readable cataloguing.

in general, cataloging has become very important to keep all the materials in the library in order. In fact, the cataloging has provided regularly within the library. People who can easily find the material you are looking for in the research library. No time is consumed in obtaining the information you need. There is ease of use, whenever you search for files or information.

understand the role of cataloging at the library will give you a vivid picture of the important thing is a catalogue in the society. Not only is it important to know how catalog printing works but it also help if you have an understanding comprehensive cataloging is everything. So that the next time that you are asked what is cataloging, immediately can make a distinction between cataloging and catalog printing.


Eight Reasons Why the Chicago Public Library Card is Priceless

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of all the elements that I have in my portfolio, my Chicago public library card is the most valuable second – next to my driver’s license. Not only the small green and white card is the key to a world of possibilities; It is totally priceless. I’ll tell you why.

1 cards are free. There are no fees, charges or taxes for owners of the card. Complete an application and provide proof of identity, current address and residence of Chicago.

2 get a free education through books, newspapers, films, Museum passes, and other special advantages offered by individual libraries. There is a main library, 76 branches of neighborhood and three regional facilities in the Chicago Library System. Books also can be rendered from libraries suburban according to the policy of reciprocity. Therefore, this free education is very easy to obtain.

3 accounts can be accessed 24/7 with a valid library card online free. Records show how many scanned books when they fall due; and any other information that is relevant to individual accounts.

4 investigate from home for free. Periodicals and other reference materials used for research can be found on the website of the library 24/7. There are only a few resources that can only be found in the databases of the library; otherwise, all other inquiries can be done remotely.

5 free Internet and Wi-Fi are available in all libraries. Library cards will require internet access; WiFi can be accessed through individual computers.

6 get free entry into most of the museums in Chicago with Museum passes. The passes can be checked out for seven days. Although not permitted entry to additional attractions at museums, customers walk free of charge.

7 after searching books online, customers can request to have books sent to the library of any of their free choice. Books can be delivered to a nearby home branch or not.

8 other benefits include discussions of free author, exhibitions, and programs for people of all ages.

Although the system of libraries offers a lot of things free, them customers have to pay charges by payments late and charges accrued by elements extracted if a card of library is lost or stolen. Fines from $.20 spends a day of books and music up to $2 to the day for films and Museum. Fortunately, there are fines maximum per article. Those customers not break unless you have many elements provided.

in essence, get a card of library free; access to an education free through books, films and Museum past; and access free, WiFI and line of research are totally priceless.


Efforts Of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan For Public Library Legislation And Service- A Review

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Dr. Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan was a visionary who realized the importance of the legislation of the library for the promotion and development of the movement of the library in the India. He was a person with vision totally dedicated to the cause of library and information science. He was fully aware with respect to the role of libraries in the improvement of education in any society. He understood the impact of educational promotion for the development of the country and the effectiveness and usefulness of the libraries to promote education.

in 1924, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan visited a number of public libraries during their stay in the United Kingdom. These visits enabled him to study system, operation, financing and services of several libraries. As a result, he was convinced that law library would provide a systematic, robust and efficient public library service. Since public libraries are informal education agencies, therefore it is obligatory for a welfare State provide, maintain, and develop a network of public libraries for the needs of the masses. A public library being essential institution of a town must be maintained out of public funds, which have to be collected more fairly. Only the Government has the power and the authority to impose and collect taxes through the passage, therefore law library is essential to collect the cess of the library. Therefore it is evident that it is essential for the Government to enact laws of library for the establishment and operation of a network of public libraries to cater to the educational needs of the public in general.

Dr. S. R. Ranganathan was the first person in India who ever thought about the need for legislation of library in 1925 after returning to the India of England. Drafted a “model law library ‘ and presented for discussion at the Conference of education Asia all and first which took place in Banaras 27 to December 30, 1930.» The participants of the Conference fully convinced with the advantages of legislation and opinions de el Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. This ‘model of the library law’ was published by the Madras Library Association during the year 1936. Subsequently amended the draft law twice – once in 1957 and again in 1972. This Act of library model member of the Assembly was introduced as a Bill in the Assembly of Madras in 1933, through Mr. Basher Ahmed Sayeed, an enthusiast of the public library system.

features more prominent de el Dr. S. R. Ranganathan model law library are:-

except the law of public libraries in Kerala, 1989, all acts, that have passed in the India during the years 1948 to 1990, with the influence of the law of public libraries model drafted by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.

made S. R. Dr. Ranganathan

persistent efforts to get the library acts pass through several States of India and he dreamed of having a plot of libraries. He prepared a model number for several States. Following is a list of them:-

also prepared a project of library Union model in 1948 and writing in 1957.

India has the first act of the public library through the ceaseless efforts de el Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. For the first time the public library of law was passed by the legislature of Madras in 1948. There is an interesting story behind the success of getting Bill enacted library at the third attempt in 1946, although two previous attempts had failed. The first attempt was made by Janab Basher Ahmed Sayeed when he introduced the Bill in the Madras legislature in 1933, but it could not pass as the Madras legislature was dissolved in 1935. A second attempt was made in 1938, but later started World War II and could not be adopted the draft law. In 1946, Mr. Avinashalingam Chettiar, who was a former student de el Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, became the Minister of education in the State of Madras. One day, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan took a copy of the library model law and was to meet with Minister at home after his usual morning walk. The Minister was shocked to see his “guru” early in the morning and asked what the purpose of your visit. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan said that he came to demand their “Gurudakshina”. When the Minister promised to offer the same, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan gave a copy of the model law and expressed his desire that becomes a law during his tenure as Minister. Mr. Avinashalingam Chettiar piloted the Bill and got it in 1948.


How To Create Your Own VBA Code Library In Excel

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a time has started in Excel VBA application development is to find it worthwhile to create your own library of code. Reuse of procedures and functions has sense when a small put point-to-point is all what you need to work the code for a project current.

there are several ways to save and organize your own code, and this article will explain how you can save and import code in a VBA module when needed.

to develop the library code

sort a column using the Excel sort function can be a typical snippet that you want to save. Here’s the code:

 Sub sort() 
Dim rng as range
Set rng = Range ("a1"). RNG CurrentRegion
. Sort Key1: = Range ("a1"), Order1: = xlAscending, Header: = xlYes
end sub

the question is where the code should be kept by what easily can access it? One option is to save the code in a text file and then use VBA to read the contents of the file into a code module.

for this example, we have saved the code in a file called “sort.txt” in a folder called “library” in the current folder of the book.

first of all, define the file and the path where is stored the code.

 path = ActiveWorkbook.path & "library" 
myFile = path & "sort.txt"

are going to import the contents of the file into a module called “Library”. This is simply a module to support any code import before you decide how to use it.

first of all, to eliminate any previous use of the module “Library”. Have disabled the option of alerts of display to save time because certainly want to delete the module.

 Application.DisplayAlerts = False 
for each an of them modules
a.Name = "library" then
out of
end if next

now can create the module “library” and the content of the file of import.

 set m = Application.Modules.Add 
m.Name = "Library"
"MyFile" m.InsertFile

will depend on your situation as to how best to configure the code library. Here are some ideas:

  • has an index file that allows you to easily search for keywords
  • Add code to the library module instead of starting from scratch each time
  • that some standard procedures in a separate file that can be used without modification.


in a few lines of code, this article has shown how can be used previously written code to refer to it when necessary. It makes sense to save your previous work and VBA makes it easy to retrieve and search your own snippets of code.


Importance of Libraries

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search for the man of knowledge has led to the creation and accumulation of huge amounts of information. This quest for knowledge knows no limits and boundaries and is never satisfied. It has continued since the dawn of civilization to the modern age. This gained knowledge and information is valuable to humanity whole and therefore likely to be preserved. With the invention of the paper man has been able to pass this knowledge on to others by writing books. Thousands of manuscripts of the wise men of former times have been written, but many of them were destroyed by the lack of adequate means of conservation.

libraries are established for the systematic collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of knowledge and information. It is very important for man to preserve and maintain valuable knowledge and the information contained in the books and documents, because we want to preserve our knowledge and wisdom to future generations. Through the preservation of the documents in a library of this knowledge can be available to others so that they can benefit from it. Establishment of libraries is not a new concept. The oldest dates library around 2700 years in the Palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, that shows how long ago the concept of letting a piece of his wisdom behind the March was formed in the collection organized to preserve the work.

with the invention of the printing press, it became easier to preserve the knowledge in the form of printed documents. This led to the generation of a large number of books. The need for the preservation and dissemination of the information led to the creation of more libraries. So libraries acquired a great importance in the civilized education and research society. Libraries play a role in the development of any society to enhance the cause of education and academic research. They adapted to the information needs of thousands of people.

the development of science and technology (S & T) in the last two centuries has led to an explosion of information. Rapid changes have taken place in a great rhythm. The library system has been improved and updated for the new challenges in order to meet the growing needs of the users. The services offered by the libraries have also experienced a big change.

with the advent of new technologies in the field of information technology and telecommunications, revolutionary changes have taken place in the field of Biblioteconomy and documentation. The form of traditional libraries that contain a large number of printed documents is in the process of being transformed into paper less libraries that contain a large number of digitized documents. The facilities offered by the networks have not stopped the libraries without touching. Modern libraries are not only scanned but network also. This has led to the creation of virtual libraries i.e. libraries without walls through which the user has access to information anytime, anywhere in the world through the use of modern tools of communication, such as computer and Internet services.

user demand is always increasing and put huge pressure on librarians. Therefore, it is imperative for the modernization of libraries in order to keep pace with modern times. The new challenges in the field of Biblioteconomy and documentation can be solved by adopting the process of digitalization and networking. In the present age librarians have to face many problems due to the limitations of time and space. User satisfaction is the main objective of a good library. You can not be accomplished without the adoption of the modern tools and techniques available borrowed by the modern technologies available in the field of information and telecommunications. These events have led to the creation of virtual libraries, which have major advantages over traditional libraries and Digital. Therefore, digital libraries are becoming popular due to the advantages and facilities offered to its users.


Acquisition of Library Materials, a Review of Some Related Literature

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the Universal availability of publications

Unfortunately, Kemp (1990) noted that insufficient attention has been paid by private organizations, Governments or international and bilateral development agencies for the proposal to make document provide a priority in poor countries. Awareness of the importance of reading in particular is very important if they are to assign resources to this vital area of activity.

line (1990) noted that the battle for the availability of the publications that has started in some countries just will it end in this era of information explosion. The concepts of universal availability of publications and universal bibliographic control are attributed to the International Federation of library associations and institutions that formed part of the Basic program. In comparison with the least developed parts of the world, developed countries like Britain have a perfect situation closely.

in Sierra Leone, the Outlook is bleak. This could attribute is to the absence of catalogues of Union and the lack of application of the legislation of deposit legal. In its literal sense, the objective of the universal availability of publications is very difficult to achieve that students and researchers get books, journals or research reports within the required time.

read (1990) return to echo the fact that many developing countries are supplied with textbooks and other reading materials. To bolster this assertion, he cited the situation in Zaire, Madagascar and China. He believed that the arrival of text books aid-funded projects has improved the situation in developing countries. He took a very positive stance based on studies that showed a significant increase in availability.

universal bibliographic control

Ochola (1984) observed that the universal bibliographic control is an aspect of development. A problem identified was the Mission of bibliographic collection of the priorities of the colonial administration in Kenya. The national bibliography of Kenya, therefore, could be seen as a creation and is in an embryonic stage.

Kwei (1988) gave a more specific treatment when he referred to the situation in a developing country like Ghana, where a lot of obstacles in trying to provide excellent bibliographic services. Among the problems identified are the lack of money, lack of professional librarians and catalogues of Union, Government and public apathy bibliographic work, lack of transport facilities and the stage of development of the editing, printing and the book trade. All is not lost. In order to improve the situation, the bibliographic agency could form part of the national bibliography. Ghana must be current and should not be left in the forward March to the information to those who need it.

Otike (1989) clearly supported the value of the currency of the information which is fully effective bibliographic data. Any national bibliography located in mora can not wait to meet this challenge. Among the problems identified in Kenya are the current state of the Publisher, application of legal deposit legislation and the production of the national bibliography of Kenya. These problems can be solved only through the cooperative efforts of information workers, editors, printers, and above all the decision makers.

Intner (1990) argues that you should create an atmosphere of sound information. It is clear that the good bibliographic instruction will be advantageous for users of library which was encouraged to see libraries in the first place, related needs and secondly to librarians for advice that ultimately will enrich the library profession. It is against this backdrop that the librarian at an academic institution should acquire materials for the better development of its collection.

(1990) Mahoney, recognizing the importance of the availability of information as an essential basis for development highlighted the importance of offering national bibliographies, especially in developing countries. She argues that a national bibliography updated topics provide among other things, records of model, a tool selection and cultural State of the nation for the country and the world in general. In reality however, the coverage of the impression of a nation is an impossibility almost all developing countries.

Wilson (1993), warned that people need current information. In other words, keeping the currency is a professional requirement of librarians and, by extension, other information professionals. The national bibliography of a developing country must be current in order to be an essential bibliographic tool.

the importance of users

Brindley (1988) identified the needs of the users as the primary basis provide or acquire documents and provide services. The selection of the document, she insists, must be related to the current needs of the users. In other words, the libraries needed as starting point for procurement policies relates to the importance of meeting the needs of the current user.

(1988) current perception of Cabutey-Adodoadji of collection development is towards the needs of the user. The key environmental factor for the development of the collection is the very high level of expectation of the public. This reinforces the importance of the needs of potential users. It should be noted that the libraries of the University must make a conscious attempt to satisfy the interests of their customers that include students (undergraduate and postgraduate) research and academic staff members. Paradoxically, budgets fall, even in some Western universities, far from what is needed to meet all of these needs. Students research and their supervisors must be realistic about what you really need to know.

Ifidon (1994), to discuss the role of library acquisition African University, highlighted the importance of the different categories of users. Materials, therefore they must meet the academic needs of undergraduate and postgraduate students and teachers if the University library must comply with its dynamic mission.

Spiller (1991) observed that the principle of the books and, by extension, document supply invariably refers to service to a given set of users or people. The needs of different users must provide the basis for the acquisition. The librarian thus faces the arduous task of identifying the needs of the different sets of users.

debate between librarian and teachers in the selection of materials from the library

Avafia (1985) observed that in practice responsible for selection of library materials varies from a University to another. Librarians at the University of Alexandria have nothing to say in what was purchased for different faculty libraries and it seems as if the academic staff on the other hand isn’t excited about the selection of books for the central library. Periodicals are selected after discussions at faculty meetings. He said, after interviewing many librarians of the University which is the shared responsibility of librarians and professors to select materials from the library.

Millson Martula (1985) commenting on this acrimonious debate studied the circulation patterns in the environment of the school. It is concluded that you for the history books, teachers and librarians are equally effective as selectors. However this conclusion should not be generalized because it was based on a specific topic.

seal (1985) was a bit diplomatic in his presentation of the debate. Clearly he examined the works of writers who found that librarians selected a greater number of titles that were used and secondly, who pointed out that the Faculty more selected titles that were eventually used. Others pointed out that no significant difference in the books selected by teachers or librarians who were eventually used there is really. Eventually, it does not take sides in the debate.

Research (1988) Schreiner-Robles in the selection and acquisition of library materials in medium-sized academic libraries in the United States should not be generalized. In its estimate, little more than academic libraries depend on faculty request materials in foreign languages. Faculty members thus play a very important role in the recommendation of securities to be purchased.

Vidor (1988) and fruits (1988) extends the research when they based their studies on the effectiveness of the circulation of library materials. They ended up taking a neutral stance. In its conclusion, they pointed out that it could not indicate with any reasonable degree of precision that librarians are significantly more effective or efficient than their counterparts in the construction of a collection of the library aregone in the University.

ali (1989) presents the background for the development of science and technology in six countries of the cooperation Council of the Gulf, namely, Buhrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qutar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The problems faced are double, sellers and geographical distance. Note that the distance between vendors and librarians is a major problem and the author suggests that Western publishers should publish Middle East editions of their publications as it is sometimes done in India, Hong Kong and other places.

presentation (1989) of Haider of the situation of the selection of books in them libraries University in Pakistan was an exit radical of the view of them others that was sitting in the near or presents a case of double. The responsibility for the selection, argued, rested directly with the Chairmen of the departments of education. They are the final authorities in relation to the selection and recommended titles for their respective subjects.

Hannaford (1990) was of the view that much of the research should be in the debate between the librarian and the faculty with regard to the selection of the book. It is fashionable, the author submits, to malign the Faculty library materials selection. A. Although it initially presented librarians to be better selectors, a suspicion of their preconceived ideas. He argues that asserting that the first are best selectors will be based more on emotion, most in evidence.

Strauch (1990) argued that only a part is right in the debate over why librarians or teachers are better selectors. Selection of the librarian to faculty selection, the writer believes, is an old debate that must come to an end. Librarians must be responsible for the selection simply because it is they who are responsible, or better yet, so it is acquired. In his view, the right is the librarian.

cooperation of the library with suppliers

Lee (1991) argues that acquisition and, ultimately, collection development efforts can be enriched by the cooperation with suppliers as libraries often lack time or automated systems effectively and efficiently carry out collection development activities. The wide range of recruitment services can be of great advantage for academic librarians customers that not only investigate options should be informed but they are actively involved in the design and use of the service.

Racz (1991) and root (1991) studied the trends that affect the selection of suppliers and attacked the traditional practice of academic libraries put more emphasis on the acquisition of the monograph that purchases serial. Librarians now face the daunting task of closely examine factors relating to the acquisition of serial publications. Consolidation is introduced to save money, receive best management report and also because librarians do not justify to keep already is a separate foreign supplier or two domestic suppliers.

Shirk (1991) questioned the nature of the relationships supplier of librarian, although such relations are beneficial to both parties. The author suggests that the tendering system has failed none of their objectives and advocates as an alternative the development of a strategic alliance in which each side finally shares the responsibility of good communication, a librarian from acquisitions is supplier. Librarian ultimately will have a stable source of books and stable provider even though the base of customers.

cost of materials in the library

Obiagwu (1990) stated that libraries of West Africa are faced with endless problems of currency and the operator gross failure of learning materials. He pointed out that the lack of availability of foreign exchange for the acquisition of materials for the library in Nigeria is not a recent phenomenon. The situation is now more critical than ever as a result of the failure of votes of book for the purchase of locally available materials.

wave-Roberts (1989) examined the effects of the devaluation of the currency in West Africa and noted the considerable fall in the value of the currency of Sierra Leone (lioness) during the reporting period. This economic problem which underlies acquisitions of the library in Sierra Leone prevails in other countries of West Africa, though in different degrees of intensity. Big depreciation of the local currency, along with the rising cost of periodicals and dwindling incomes at the bottom of the book, leave the library of the University in a helpless state and hopeless in terms of shopping refer.

Nwafor (1990) uses the Nigerian experience to illustrate the devastating effects of the economies of the third world countries in their educational systems and university libraries. University education is going to be meaningless as a result of irrelevant text books and the astronomical high cost of the few available. Universities still get the same vote that used to get. People depend on books in the library are not reset simply because the University does not have money. This is unrealistic when considering the cost of books and the value of the local currency (naira).

Obiagwu (1990) emphasized the impact of the structural adjustment programme on the acquisition of the library in West Africa. Although most of the illustrations were made of the experience of Nigeria, it is far from surprising that bra feels all over West Africa. Inflationary pressures, the vote reduced book and the astronomical devalued currency conspire to frustrate the objectives of the academic library. This is because the parent institution is funded by the competent authority. Secondly, the percentage stipulated in the regular annual budget an academic library is right is not respected. In short, academic libraries have always suffered cuts in book votes.

Schrift (1991) discusses the dynamic relations between librarians, publishers, and vendors in a warm climate of the needs of the expanding and contracting of resources. Eyebrows are raised under the discussion of the editors, whose unique position should be treated with caution. They should not be regarded as allies of librarians because it benefits from greater efficiency will not pass, or the magazine spurred by a weak currency price increases will be reversed when the currency gains. Cost of information will just be reduced by technological innovation since access will be controlled by the same publishing segment extortive. Summary

is evident in the report that there is a book and hunger for information in developing countries and will continue the battle for the best availability of library materials for a considerable period. University libraries do not have sufficient funds to purchase library materials. In theory, a national bibliography provides coverage of publications of the nation, but in practice the bibliography is a poor reflection of your definition.

the role of the acquisition and collection development is not only to plan a program of acquisition of shares but to make it relevant to the immediate and future needs of users. Born (1993) noted with reason that “a closer co-operation has developed between departments as librarians evaluate and assessment collections to ensure the current and future needs of students and faculty” (p.125). The old debate between faculty and librarian at the selection of materials should end. The first should be responsible for the selection of materials to meet the users since he or she will be responsible for what is required. Devaluation of the local currency affects significantly the cost of library materials. Generally taken for granted that the University libraries lack sufficient funds. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ali, S.N. (1989). “Acquisition of scientific literature in developing countries: Arab countries of the Gulf”. Development of information. 5, section 2, pp. 108-14.

Avafia, K.E. (1985). “Libraries: the African scene”. In Wise M. (ed). Aspects of librarianship: a collection of writings. London: Mansell Publishing Limited. pp. 1-30.

born, k. (1993). “The role of the seller in the process of evaluation of collection serials”. Journal of Library Administration. 19 (2), pp.125-138.

Brindley, l. (1998). “Summarize”. In S. Corral (ed). Collection development: options for effective management. London: Taylor Graham. PP.141-151
Haider, S.J. (1989). “Acquisition and scientific literature in developing countries: Pakistan”. Development of information. 5, paragraph 2, pp.85-98.

Hannaford, e. (1990). “Windmills: selection in the libraries of the University”. Collection management. 12 (1-2), pp.31-35.

Ifidon, B.I. (1994). “The scarcity of books in Nigeria: causes and solutions”. African Journal of library, archive and documentation. 4, 1, pp.55-62.

Intner, S.S. (1990). “The public and bibliographic instruction: losing opportunities in the creation of a positive information environment”. The libraryreference River. 1, pp. 15-30.

Kemp, i. (1990). “Provision of the document can be a priority in poor countries”. In D.J. Membrey (ed). Nothing to read: crisis of provision of documents in the third world. Birmingham International and comparative librarianship of the Library Association. pp. 19-25.

Kwei, C. (1988). “Bibliographic control: International concept and the national effort”. Journal of the Ghana library. 6.1, pp. 31-39
lee, L.K. (1991). “Library/vendor cooperation in development of the collection”. Acquisitions librarian. 5.1, pp. 181-190.
line, M.B. (1990). “The universal availability of publications on least developed countries”. In D.J. Membrey (ed). Nothing to read: crisis of provision of documents in the third world. Birmingham International and comparative librarianship of the Library Association. pp. 35-43.

Mahoney, M. (1990). “The national bibliography of the developing essential: essential bibliographic tool or anachronism?” In D.J. Membrey (ed). Nothing to read: crisis of provision of documents in the third world. Birmingham International and comparative librarianship of the Library Association. pp. 77-81.

Martula-Millson, C. (1985). “The effectiveness of the agents of selection of book in a small academic library”. University and research libraries. 46 (1), pp. 294-310
Nwafor, B. (1990). “The financing of university libraries of third world”. In D.J. Membrey (ed). Nothing to read: crisis of provision of documents in the third world. Birmingham International and comparative librarianship of the Library Association. pp. 13-18.

Obiagwu, M.C. (1990). “Foreign exchange and collection of the library in Nigeria.” Development of information. 3.3. pp. 154-160.

Ochola, F.W. (1984). “The Kenya National Bibliography”. International cataloging. 13, 3, pp.20-35.

wave-Roberts, N. (1989). User and patterns at the Fourah Bay College Loan: 1970/71-1984/85. Freetown: Fourah Bay College.

Otike, J.N. (1989). “Bibliographic control in Kenya”. Development of information. 5.1 pp. 23-28.

Racz, T.M. and root, A.T. (1991). “Trends in selection of suppliers of affection: an academic library experience”. The Librarian of the acquisition. 5.1, pp.53-61.

seal, M. (1985). “Selection in the library of the University of the book: the perspective of the Faculty”. The collection building. 5 (2), pp.29-36.

Schneider-Robles, r. (1988). “Development of the collection of foreign literature in medium-sized academic libraries”. Library resources and technical services. 32 (1), pp. 18-33.

Schrift, l. (1991). “The 1990s: is there any room left”. Acquisitions librarian. 5.1, pp.29-36.

shirk, G.M. (1991). “The wonderful web: reflections on the relations of acquisition and the supplier of library”.

the acquisitions librarian. 5.1, pp.1-8.

Spiller, D. (1990). Book selection: principles and practice. London: Library Association Publishing.

Strauch, k. (1990). “Librarian to faculty selection: meets the good with the bad and the ugly”. Collection management. 12 (1-2), pp.37-41.

Vidor, D.Lgs and fruits, e. (1988). “The developers of effective fundraising: librarians or teachers?” Library resources and technical services. 32 (1), pp.127-136.

Wilson, p. (1993). “The value of the currency”. Library trends. 41 (4), pp.632-643.


Challenges Facing The Library At West Africa Theological Seminary, Affiliate Of University Of Nigeri

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the library has become “a place responsible for the acquisition, organization, preservation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information in any format may appear” (Olanlokun and Salisu, 1993, ix). Library of seminar theological of Africa Western is at the crossroads. The practices of the traditional library and modern technological advances developed and adopted to be relevant in this era of information. It is priced very high which must be paid otherwise the library will become eventually as the legendary character who slept for twenty years in the mountain Gasgill on Gulliver travels and finally woke up to find the world changed completely.


the history of the previous seminar could be traced back realistic historical visit of two American missionaries (Rev. Dr. and Reverend Mrs. Gary Maxey) who led a group of Nigerian and expatriate Christians in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria in April 1989. (The Maxeys had initially worked creditably in religious education in Port Harcourt for seven years). The establishment of the seminary in 1989 was a practical demonstration of the need to actively participate in the training of pastors, evangelists, missionaries and teachers not only in Nigeria, but also in other parts of the continent and the West. Currently, the seminar is the Seminary of the Evangelical Holiness non-denominational in Nigeria which has attracted students from a broad spectrum of Nigerian Christian denominations (and) ethnic groups. During a recently completed semester WATS teaches students from thirty States of Nigeria, over forty groups of language, () other African countries from over eighty church groups (West Africa Theological Seminary brochure 2004, 5).

the name of the seminary was shifted Wesley International Theological Seminary theological Seminario of West Africa in June 01, 2001, the same year that moved to 35/37 MM International Airport Road, Lagos, Nigeria. The institution is affiliated to the University of Nigeria Nsukka and currently offers several programs of study, including: Bachelor of Arts in religious studies, Bachelor of theology, diploma in theology, computer studies certificate, diploma in computer science, master’s degree in biblical studies, master of divinity, master of Christian leadership and master’s degree in intercultural studies. The seminar began to publish the Theological Seminary of West Africa magazine in 2002.

one of the immediate plans of the seminar is to automate the collection of the library. A crucial aspect is to identify software that will be able to meet the needs of the seminar. In software selection, the seminar should be thinking in terms of networks and take into account automation programs normally requires annual support fee. WEST AFRICA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY LIBRARY

is a truism that “the library is the hub of educational institutions” (Olanlokun and Salisu, 1993, vii) and West Africa Theological Seminary library is no exception. This library uses the second edition of the Anglo American cataloging (AACR2) and rules the twentieth Edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC 20). Divides the card catalog, “an authors and titles stored in a single alphabetical file and a file of cards of the topic in alphabetical order” (Newhall 1970, 38) and the file system is letter-by-letter basis, a system in which “entries are presented without taking into account the spaces between the words” (Nwosu 2000: 61). There is a catalogue of books, containing (undergraduate and postgraduate) projects presented by the seminary students and some staff members who studied in other institutions.

in 2003 the library benefited from a subscription paid by Asbury Theological Seminary for the ATLANTIC (American Theological Library Association) database on CD-ROM. This is a comprehensive tool designed to support religious education and faculty research. The library serves students, academic and administrative staff of the seminar and external users (teachers and students from other theological institutions).

other relevant information include:


a. during the term: Monday to Saturday: 9:00? 10:30 p.m.

B. holiday: Monday to Friday: 9:00? 9:00 p.m.

NO OF BOOKS: 36.500

NOT OF journal titles: 98



THE BOOK CATALOG: projects (card and book catalog)



with the exclusion of the presenter, WATTS library is currently served by seventeen staff members, nine of which are student workers. These workers students work mostly in the evenings, serving tables of safety and circulation (although external indebtedness is not performed during this period). In addition, clean library. CHALLENGES

1. Training and recruitment of professional librarians

nine of the seventeen members of the staff are student workers who used this opportunity to raise a significant portion of their fees and, in some cases, some extra funds to keep it same as pursue his theological studies. The presenter is aware of who has expressed interest in the library profession. Services provided may not be classified as professionals. Unfortunately, only two of the regular members of staff have completed training of library at the highest level of support. The implication is that the library is seriously be in need of professional librarians in otherwise would continue to run the level of services. A troublesome dimension is that in the majority of cases, young members of staff who are most “are allowed to make professional tasks in the absence of the appropriate box which should make them” (Nwosu 2000: 103).

for example the card catalog will be used to demonstrate the effect that the shortage or lack of professional librarians is having in the library’s collection.

the most common form of catalogue of the library in West Africa is the card catalog and “there is a need (a) to know the design of the system in order to use effectively” (Nwosu 2000, 57). A challenge for the library is to maintain a consistent presentation rule. Although WATTS Library operates the system known as the “letter by letter” or “all” method, there is evidence of another method, which is the “Word by word” or “nothing to something”. The first is the common approach to literacy, where B must always come before C. At last, the space between words is takes into account since the focus is on each word. When it gets to the return of the word in the alphabetical sequence, considered all his associates along.

marry the two methods of presentation or literacy can cost one information that is needed.

another problem is misapplication of the rules of presentation. American Association of library (rule 6) Code stipulates that “abbreviated words should be presented as if they were designated in its entirety, with one exception, i.e., the abbreviation St. Ms. is therefore presented as if written Saint and Mc… like Mac” (Harrison and Malaga 1985, 82). The former rule unfortunately is misapplied in the WATT library. If the rule is not taken into account, the analysis of the Word will be filed before St when it should be the other way around. Similarly, Dr. (doctor) also will be archived before down and not the other way around.

a third question in the presentation (rule 5) says that the initials must be submitted before words. (However, abbreviations are treated as words, for example, UNICEF, UNESCO, ECOWAS etc..) There are instances in the catalogue of WATS that this rule is not taken into consideration. A word like Aaron erroneously before A.G.M and A.L.A.

It is frightening that there is no room for rise of the library staff. The absence of a professional scheme of service or promotion of the guidelines, the members of the staff have worked in a position already received their letters of appointment.

2. computerization of the library

some libraries in Nigeria have automated services. Examples include the Institute of Tropical Agriculture library in Ibadan and the Federal Institute for library research Industrial, Oshodi, Lagos. Others, including the library of WATTS, are punto’s put his plan of automation in action.

automation can benefit the acquisition, the cataloging and the series departments of them following ways: acquisition
: Automation can help in the control of the Fund, as well as in the generation and dissemination of reports. Also you can print list of elements, including the list of accession.


purchase acquisition is generally defined as “the process of obtaining books and other documents to a library, documentation centre or file” (Prytherch 1986, 61). Irrefutable, is “one of the most important in any system library functions” (Ali, 1989, 66). Some means of acquisition of library materials include the purchase, donation, exchange of Legal deposit legislation and members of professional organizations. Most of the libraries in West Africa, shows that rates of acquisition
are grossly inadequate to support both research and teaching although judged by minimum standards accepted in developed countries. Attempts to alleviate the situation with various forms of aid, although intrinsically meritorious offer little hope of improvement in the long run (Allen 1993, 232).

materials donated widely common West Africa Theological Seminary library. Given that the beggars are not selectors, a significant proportien there are publications date. There are many reading materials which are not even relevant to the general curriculum of the seminar. Wedding bag ‘unwanted’ is a great problem to the library because there is no adequate replacement.

a medium often overlooked acquisition is member of professional associations. If the library continues to distance himself from the professional register of library institutions, it will not be aware of the current trends in the professional who are negatively reflected in the type and quality of the services provided.

4. Internet connectivity

the WATS the Administration published a letter on January 02, 2005 announcing a significant reduction (approximately 75%) the campus internet service. This was attributed to the reduction in the bandwidth that made it impossible to support all previous work stations. A technological blow was dealt with in the library Internet cafe since fell prey to this decision. Students were advised them use the Internet Café on the ground floor. Administration of the seminar should support the library in its embryonic phase judiciously embrace the new technology. On the other hand, the theological librarians have a very crucial role “to ensure that the resulting use of computers and telecommunications and any other appropriate technology contributes effectively to the needs of research and scholarship (that) already have experience in the acquisition of materials in a variety of formats and make them accessible for a variety of purposes” (Simpson 1984 38).

5. online resources

online resource used in West Africa Theological Seminary (and which is highly recommended for other theological libraries in Africa) is the American Association of theological library (ATLA) religion index, useful to access articles, reviews, essays, monographs and dissertations. The use of databases, overlapping subject fields, i.e., interdisciplinary database search, is an aspect often high in searches online. West Africa Theological Seminary library users do not have access to an incredible amount of resources online since it does not subscribe to use these materials. An example of a very important online resource is the Online Library Center (OCLC) computer. This Centre, a Dublin, Ohio-based bibliographic utility is a cooperative that serves approximately 39.517 libraries in seventy-six countries electronic global information. Operates an online Union Catalog. There are approximately 28 million cataloging records and the database (using MARC tapes and other data entry online for users) provides reference and interlibrary loan, probably as the database more complete the world of bibliographic information that produces the first search system through which the library can subscribe to thousands of academic and professional titles of some seventy editors available electronically.

6. functional Copier

the library has a photocopier, the machine is frequently out of order. This machine of second hand has to be replaced to allow that it library really benefit is of their services. The administration of the seminar even took a decision recently to deliver services of photocopying to a student that currently it is running a business best.

7. images of Audio

collection audio visual

are carriers of information based on paper no. You have introduced in the library through advances in it technology. Is called audiovisual because require appreciation auditory and visual. One of its main advantages is storing a large amount of information in a space small. Audio Visual include tapes of audio, microforms, strips of film, graphics, slides, tapes of video, television etc. Some of these appeal only to the sense of the hearing (audio), some only to the view (Visual) and others to both the senses auditory and Visual (audio visual). Although WATTS library has received enough audio visual materials, there is need to buy the necessary support equipment for the collection of visual audio a reality.

the seminar has been receiving several research tools in the form of CD-ROM for a considerable period. The library is to offer to the users through the installation in a functional computer.

8. link

it is true that “once you select any element in the collection, the library promises to preserve it” (Goodrum and Dalrymple 1985, 65). The absence of a link within the library collection is negatively affecting the physical condition of the books. It should take into account that since a significant portion of the library materials are donated, many are received in a very poor physical condition.

the link can also be very decisive in Union of newspaper and magazine issues to facilitate a relatively easy storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.

9. instructions

to further weakness of the practice of the library is the failure to instruct users on use of the library in the best way. Experience, “studies have shown that the public use of such tools as catalogues are minimal, mainly because never has been shown how to operate” (Jackaman, 1989, 3). Many students in WATTS through the seminary without a reasonable understanding of the basic principles of the library. This means that the orientation of a time held at the beginning of each semester is insufficient.

10. Series collection

selected to several journals, subscribed by the library, requested and received, processed and shelved by this collection. It is constantly checked to determine if there are problems already due but have not received to make such claims. This section also newspaper stocks. The importance of a collection of invaluable library cannot be overstated. It is unfortunate that WATS library does not subscribe to magazines and this explains why there are many different holes in periodical literature. The library is at the mercy of the donors who normally send magazines randomly.

newspapers are purchased directly by the administration of WATS and these are subsequently sent to the library, in the majority of cases not on the day of purchase. This defeats the purpose of the newspapers since they arrive late at the library. Recent information should be the main concern for the worker of library or information. Therefore, “currency should therefore be a requirement and not a choice” (Wilson 1993, 636).

11. Heat in the library

the heat present in the library is harmful to books since moisture is a threat to their survival. If not regularly sprayed, fungi developed within the pages easily and damage the writing. Many researchers are unable to remain for a considerable period due to the discomfort caused by a very hot environment.

12. Internet search

when running the library, cyber café, users user statistics indicate that 90% of those who use Internet did for sending emails and chat with friends. The remaining ten percent is used to investigate and perform other functions. Insignificant percentage that uses it for research purposes depend largely on Google. A student and a library staff opinion adopting the approach of ‘ google only ‘ because they are not aware of any others cite.

is observed that “the majority of users located (information) through subscription search engines such as Google” (Harding 2004). This overconfidence is a serious limitation. Evaluates the effectiveness of Google as well:

a recent ‘Ancient Near East’ Google search resulted in results over 150,000. While many of these are probably excellent sites, many more probably aren’t. The website ETANA, curiously, does not appear in the list of the first hundred. As well, the researcher who will benefit from access to ETANA but who does not know her existencia it is likely that you will not stumble through it using Google (Limpitlaw 2003, p.5).

is something regrettable that even professors incredibly proliferate dependence on a web site (Google). The issue is that “If the researchers of the Faculty you are relying almost exclusively to Google, however, how many of them are able to motivate students to broaden their search beyond Google, at least to explore resources and materials that their libraries keep?” (Norlin 2004, 56). The library staff must be very instrumental in the direction of the user to other sites of interest and free libraries online, Digital Library of Africa for example in South Africa. Continuing education for library staff should be encouraged so that they can be aware of changes in technology. It said that “a program of training successful depends on also the commitment that shows high address for the process of training” (Martey 2002, 14). An undeniable reality is that “librarians should know how to access and filter out what is on the web” (Rosenberg, 1997, 15). Among several suggestions to clear frost of the African Church in his theological mission, Tienou (1990) provides improvement of theological libraries and (by implication), theological librarians that collate between the information and the user. Training of information professionals and library staff is very important to deal with the apparent rapid astronomical development in the information age. It is quite unfortunate that theological librarians have not generally accompanied the introduction of Internet service in library of Theological Seminary of West Africa with a careful use training.

no doubt, unless… librarians receive this training, there is a danger that the potential of this technology for the supply and repackaging for information transfer will remain insufficiently exploited and that it will not integrate with more servicespeople of library based on the traditional printing “(Asamoah 2003, 17).”

13. Funding

is incontrovertible “every good collection is an expression of healthy and appropriate financial support, and not the collection development can reach this goal if it is economically disadvantaged” (Alemna 1994, 47). In his commentary on the challenge in the field of library science, it is observed that “library funding probably” be what consumes the energy of the administrators of the library at the end of this century (and the next) (Moore and Shander 1993, 19). WATS library must be realistic budget if it is to remain the academic hub of the seminar.


as Ato Yawson in the dilemma of a ghost Ama Ata Aidoo, the question is, will WATTS library go to Cape Coast (representing the traditional) or Elmina (representing the modern ‘)? In the field of library science, a realistic answer lies “in the preservation of traditional services and adopt technological advances” (Harding, 2002, 9).

the following are published for consideration to WATTS library for the unavoidable challenges:

1. Professionally trained personal

the library profession is in crisis. “The need to find and maintain leadership in the quality of the libraries is a fundamental issue for the future” (Hisle 2002, 211). In WATTS library staff must be trained professionally. Acquisition of relevant skills of the library not cannot be overemphasized. Relevant training should include the use of software applications. The modern theological Librarian is at a crossroads and must keep a very useful balance between traditional and modern research techniques to be relevant in this era of information. Poor services which will continue if personal only hired because they are Christians with little emphasis on vocational training. Theological librarians need the type of training carried out by ACTEA (Council of accreditation for theological education in Africa) Africa Eastern personal library Training Institute at Daystar University in Kenya in July 2004. Librarians need courses of cataloging and classification, library management, and answer reference questions. In addition, should receive training in the search of the internet, using the Boolean operators to consult journals in full-text access to reference materials on CD-ROM, with MARC and compile lists of important sites and reference CDs.

seminar, library, training, recruitment, librarians,

2. Scheme of service

to do a continuous mockery of the library profession, it is recommended that professional guidelines for the appointment and promotion of staff in the library at all levels be elaborated and applied. Administration of the seminar could compare the scheme of service of several institutions in Nigeria and the region as a guide to reasonably maintain the standard.

positions which should be taken into account in the different categories are:

a. personal junior

i. Messenger/cleaner

ii. Library Assistant III

iii. Library Assistant II

iv. Assistant library I

Assistant library I v.

vi. Assistant library II

vii. Assistant III Library

support Senior personal b.

i. apprentice librarian/Senior Library Assistant II / admin. Assistant II

ii. I Senior Library Assistant / admin. c. personal

i. official library

ii. Librarian II

iii. Librarian to

iv. Top librarian

v. librarian Assistant

vi. Librarian head

the personal qualification of senior library criteria should be taken into account. Some of these areas include:

academic qualifications and professional

work professional experience professional activity

research and publications administrative experience

3. Internet in the library

service the library Internet cafe should be resurrected if the library is going to be relevant in this technological age. The library staff should receive training that will allow them creditably manage databases in your library.

4. instructions

the library should be more proactive in user education strategies. Most current knowledge or selective dissemination of information must be to attract students and staff. A course on the use of the library could be introduced as compulsory for all categories of students. It is evident even in West Africa Theological Seminary that “librarians already not to assume the same level of interest and support for the library of a faculty that increasingly depend on their own strategies of search and skills in an electronic world have access from their offices” (Norlin 2004, 56). Theological librarians should be carefully attuned to the concerns of students and faculty. Librarians in WATTS professionalism in identifying the problem of the investigator, search for specific pieces of information in a quick and efficient way the download and transmits the search result by any suitable means for users of the Faculty and students (phone, email, called staff, brief letter to name a few), gradually be renewed interest in the library as an information intermediary.

the library of Theological Seminary West Africa must pass several weeks offering “Power only” and “students” training in the use of the American Theological Library Association database (after paying the current subscription). An indisputable fact is that “unless theological librarians see consciously the Faculty (and students) as the main objective of (its) activities, (they) become irrelevant… for students, teachers, administrators and institutions” (Norlin 2004, 55).

5. the role of the administration of the Seminar

management in WATTS should recognize that the library is not an optional extra and that the impending Doctoral seminar program will only become reality when the library manages a particular professional standard. The authorities of the seminary should support their progress through the development of existing collections (for example, subscribing to scientific journals to the collection of serials) and assisting the creation of a vibrant collection of Digital Library that must be served by a professional librarian. Providing updates server and disk storage space should be seriously considered. You must have in-service training regularly attend the personal library increase of relevant skills in information technology.

the question of funding may not be over-emphasized too much. WATS library can only be relevant in this era of the information if the seminary Administration would recognize “the centrality of their academic nerve center (library) and ensure the sustainability of the programs of library and services” (Harding, 2002, 9). Introduction of rates to users, more activities of fundraising in the library (for example, sales of books), increase in the support of donor agencies could lead to an increase in the revenues needed to acquire and maintain the necessary equipment.

when the library is funded properly, will be in a position to subscribe to relevant journal titles, buy standard theological texts, build a vibrant collection of audio visual, offer air conditioning systems to control the heat, replace the photocopier and provide other necessary services as and when required.

professionally trained personnel, scheme of service, modernization of internet services in the cipher, cataloguing, acquisition, instructions, internet, audio/visual, series, link, funding, service plan,

6. Membership of the WATTS library

professional organizations must register as institutional member associations of professional librarians such as Association of theological libraries of Nigeria, Association of Christian librarians for Africa, American Association of Christian Fellowship and theological libraries librarians. (The presenter is a member of all but the first). It was through the American Association of theological library that the author was informed that the Edition has been published twenty second in the classification of the library Dewey Decimal (DDC). (WATTS using the twentieth Edition). The DDC numbers include all titles newly assigned to 200 of religion program, as well as others considered of interest for theological libraries.

below is an example:

subject heading call number

day all souls in the art 704.9493943

Islamic modernism 297.09

nymphs (Greek gods) in the art 704.9489221

206.1, preaching to outdoor 251

Social capital (sociology)? Religious aspects 201.7

Venus (Roman deity) in the art 704.9489221

(Osmanski 2003, 2 – 1)

7. Automation CONCLUSION

is no doubt that it was never going to change the role of the library as an information intermediary. However, the means to fulfill this invaluable role are still changing and library must adapt to maintain their relevance. Library of WATT is a unit of a self-sufficient institution with several challenges. The traditional practices of the library must be fully developed and the best of modern technology should be embraced. This high price will be charged as the library trips to ‘Coast’. Seminar librarians have a big challenge to go from being mere guardian of the book guides through a universe of knowledge, thereby playing a ro invaluablele as an intermediary for information (Kargbo 2002). Since the Mission of the library to facilitate the free flow of information exists even in the midst of technological changes, librarians in all types of libraries, including WATTS, “must find a useful balance between the conventional and traditional library functions and methods of the new challenges to maintain its leading role in (the) of the information age” (2002 10 Harding). Librarians in West Africa Theological Seminary could only be relevant in this age if they are prepared to possess the necessary skills to enable users in a commendable manner, use reading materials, study and consultation in any format may appear. This can not be done without the invaluable support of the administration of the seminary. With this realization, “students will be taught the electronic art of information retrieval, which can be used to write their thesis and project work” (Asamoah 2003, 17).


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